World's First Probiotic for the Mouth and Throat

Research Studies

The Science Behind BLIS K12™

BLIS K12™ is naturally occurring, strain of the common oral bacteria called S. salivarius. BLIS Technologies Ltd has patented this unique strain and called it BLIS K12™.

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Link To Keywords
PubMed.gov Streptococcus Salivarius k12
   
 

BLIS K12 Reference List of Peer Reviewed Studies and Book Chapters:

Researcher Year Country of Research Study Title & Publication
     

ORAL INFECTIONS

Di Pierro et al 2013 Italy

Clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in adults. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2013 Mar;13(3):339-43.

Di Pierro et al 2012 Italy Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media. Int J Gen Med. 2012;5:991-7
Ishijima et al 2012 Japan and New Zealand Effect of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans and its protective effect in an oral candidiasis model. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Apr;78(7):2190-9.
Guglielmetti et al 2010 Italy Oral bacteria as potential probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Jun;76(12):3948-58.
Horz et al 2007 Germany Distribution and persistence of probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the human oral cavity as determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2007 Apr;22 (2):126-30.
Tagg et al 2006 New Zealand

Oral streptococcal BLIS: Heterogeneity of the effector molecules and potential role in the prevention of streptococcal infections. International Congress Series, 2006, Vol 128: 347-350

Wescombe et al 2006 New Zealand Production of the lantibiotic salivaricin A and its variants by oral streptococci and use of a specific induction assay to detect their presence in human saliva. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2006 Feb 72(2):1459-1466.
Tagg et al 2004 New Zealand Prevention of streptococcal pharyngitis by anti-Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by Streptococcus salivarius. Indian J Med Res. 2004 May;119 Suppl:13-6.
Dierksen et al 2000 New Zealand The influence of indigenous bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius on the acquisition of Streptococcus pyogenes by primary school children in Dunedin, New Zealand. In: Streptococci and streptococcal diseases entering the new millennium. 2000 p81-85.
     

DENTAL HEALTH

Burton et al 2013 New Zealand Influence of the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 on indices of dental health in children: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Med. Microbiol. 2013 62:DOI 10.1099/jmm.0.056663-0
James & Tagg 1991 New Zealand The prevention of dental caries by BLIS-mediated inhibition of mutans streptococci. N Z Dent J. 1991 Jul;87(389):80-3.
     

UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

Fiedler et al 2013 Germany Protective mechanisms of respiratory tract Streptococci against Streptococcus pyogenes biofilm formation and epithelial cell infection. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Feb;79(4):1265-76.
Di Pierro et al 2012 Italy Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media. Int J Gen Med. 2012;5:991-7
Santagati et al 2012 Italy Bacteriocin-producing oral streptococci and inhibition of respiratory pathogens. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2012 65:23-31
Power et al 2008 New Zealand Preliminary investigations of the colonisation of upper respiratory tract tissues of infants using a paediatric formulation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Jun 17.
       

HALITOSIS

Masdea et al 2012 Switzerland Antimicrobial activity of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on bacteria involved in oral malodour.
Arch Oral Biol. 2012 Aug;57(8):1041-7.
Burton et al 2006 New Zealand A preliminary study of the effect of probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 on oral malodour parameters, J Appl Microbiol. 2006 Apr; 100(4):754-64.
Kazor et al 2003 USA Diversity of bacterial populations on the tongue dorsa of patients with halitosis and healthy patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2003 Feb;41(2):558-563
     

SAFETY

Barretto et al 2012 Switzerland Genome sequence of the lantibiotic bacteriocin producer Streptococcus salivarius strain K12. J Bacteriol. 2012 Nov;194(21):5959-60.
Burton et al 2011 New Zealand and USA Evaluation of safety and human tolerance of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Sep;49(9):2356-64.
Heng et al 2011 New Zealand Genome sequence of the bacteriocin-producing oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18. J. Bact. 2011 Nov 193:6402-6403
Burton et al 2010 New Zealand Extended safety data for the oral cavity probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12. Probiotics and Antimicro. Prot. 2010 2:135-144.
Burton et al 2006 New Zealand Safety assessment of the oral cavity probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Apr;72(4):3050-3.
       

IMMUNITY

Groeger et al 2011 Germany B7-H1 and B7-DC receptors of oral squamous carcinoma cells are upregulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Immunobiology. 2011 Dec;216(12):1302-10.
Cosseau et al 2008 Canada and United Kingdom The commensal Streptococcus salivarius K12 down-regulates the innate immune responses of human epithelial cells and promotes hostmicrobe homeostasis. Infection and Immunity, Sept. 2008, p. 4163–4175
       

OTITIS MEDIA

Di Pierro et al 2012 Italy Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media. Int J Gen Med. 2012;5:991-7.
Tagg et al 2003 New Zealand Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) production by the normal flora of the nasopharynx: potential to protect against otitis media? J Med Microbiol. 2003 Sep;52(Pt 9):829-33.
Wescombe et al 2006 New Zealand & Canada Megaplasmids encode differing combinations of lantibiotics in Streptococcus salivarius, Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2006 Oct;90 (3):269-80
Hyink et al. 2007 New Zealand

Salivaricin A2 and the novel antibiotic salivaricin B, are encoded by adjacent loci on a 190 kb transmissible megaplasmid in the oral probiotic strain Streptococcus salivarius K12. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(4): 1107-13.

Wescombe et al 2006 New Zealand Production of the lantibiotic salivaricin A and its variants by oral streptococci and use of a specific induction assay to detect their presence in human saliva. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Feb;72(2):1459-66.
       

REVIEWS

Wescombe et al 2012 New Zealand Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius. Future Microbiol. 2012 7(12):1355-1371.
Hale et al 2012 New Zealand BLIS-producing probiotics targeting the oral cavity. Microbiology Australia. 2012 Sept 33(3):103-105.
Burton et al 2011 New Zealand and Canada Beneficial microbes for the oral cavity: time to harness the oral streptococci? Beneficial microbes. 2011 June 2(2):93-101
Wescombe et al 2010 New Zealand Something old and something new: An update on the amazing repertoire of bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius. Probiotics & Antimicro. Prot. 2010 2:37-45
Tagg 2009 New Zealand Streptococcal bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances: some personal insights into the bacteriocin-like activities produced by streptococci good and bad. Probiotics and Antimicro. Prot. 2009 1:60-66.
Wescombe et al 2009 New Zealand Streptococcal bacteriocins and the case for Streptococcus salivarius as model oral probiotics. Future Microbial. 2009 4(7):819-35
Tagg et al 2008 New Zealand Streptococci as effector organisms for probiotic and replacement therapy. In: Therapeutic Microbiology: Probiotic and Related Strategies. J. Versalovic and M. Wilson, American Society for Microbiology. p61-81.
Tagg 2007 New Zealand Application of bacterial pathogens in replacement therapy. In: Patho-Biotechnology. R. Sleator and C. Hill Landes Bioscience.
Heng et al 2007 New Zealand The diversity of bacteriocins in gram-positive bacteria. In: Ecology and Evolution. M. Riley and M. Chavan. p45-92.
Tagg et al 2003 New Zealand Bacterial replacement therapy: adapting 'germ warfare' to infection prevention, Trends Biotechnol. 2003 May;21 (5):217-23.

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